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By X. Karmok. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Tubby collaborated with Robert into its own storehouse cheap fosamax 35 mg without a prescription, whereas the Association Jones in publishing a book on Modern Methods unwillingly scattered its harvest for many years in the Surgery of Paralysis fosamax 70 mg for sale. The many indications for tendon Important Publications transplantation and its technique were described. Their treatment of spastic paralysis was an inno- In 1896, Tubby published a book entitled Defor- vation; little had been attempted for this type of mities: a Treatise on Orthopedic Surgery. It was based mainly on the experience the in abduction, to be followed by re-education author had gained at the National Orthopedic walking exercises. By these procedures they were Hospital and the Evelina Hospital for Sick Chil- able to get these patients walking and capable of dren. For the spastic pronated hand, the the lavish number of illustrations produced, 200 pronator radii teres was converted into a supina- were original. But he cast his net widely in order tor by detaching its insertion, with periosteum, to gather the thinking and practice of surgeons in passing it through the interosseous membrane, America and on the Continent. The work was an behind the radius and reattaching it to the outer authoritative presentation of orthopedic surgery side of the bone. Flexor carpi ulnaris was trans- as understood in the closing years of the nine- planted into extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi teenth century; it revealed how great had been its radialis into the radial extensors. Little in 1839 published his sometimes combined with tendon transplantation classic A Treatise on Club-Foot and the Nature of in patients with infantile paralysis; more often Analogous Distortions. They had per- branch of surgery had still to reach maturity; a formed over 100 such operations. The publication passage in the preface of his book makes strange of this work in 1903 was a distinct landmark in reading: “The practice of Orthopedic Surgery in the progress of orthopedic surgery. England does not include all phases of diseases of In 1912, Tubby published a new edition of bones and joints such as tuberculous ostitis and his textbook with the ominous title Deformities arthritis of the hip and knee, on what grounds it Including Diseases of the Bones and Joints. He had been formed by Nicoladani in 1882, when he attached obliged to rewrite the whole work and to arrange the peronei to the tendo achillis in a patient with the various subjects according to their etiology talipes calcaneus. In 1892, Parish and Drobnik and pathology rather than on a regional classifi- independently applied the same method to other cation as in the previous edition. In 1894, Winkelman ana- accumulated material that the author had to issue lyzed a series of cases in which he had performed the work in two large volumes, which contained the operation. This was followed by a series pub- 70 plates and more than 1,000 illustrations, of lished by Goldthwait; and Townsend wrote on which 400 were original. The last paper, tested at the exclusion of diseases of bones and read before the British Orthopedic Society in joints, apart from the spine, from the province of 339 Who’s Who in Orthopedics orthopedic surgery.

Not only can patients tell their stories and relating to the patient buy fosamax 35mg overnight delivery, verbal or written show physical signs buy fosamax 70 mg low cost, but they can also give deeper and broader x Brief the patient before the session—purpose of the teaching insights into their problems. Finally, they can give feedback to session, level of students’ experience, how the patient is expected to both learners and teacher. Through their interactions with participate patients, clinical teachers—knowingly or unknowingly—have a x If appropriate, involve the patient in the teaching as much as powerful influence on learners as role models. Choosing the most appropriate type of written examination for a certain purpose Probably the most important misconception is the belief that is often difficult. This article discusses the format of the question determines what the question some general issues of written assessment actually tests. Multiple choice questions, for example, are often thengivesanoverviewofthemost believed to be unsuitable for testing the ability to solve medical commonly used types, together with their problems. The reasoning behind this assumption is that all a major advantages and disadvantages student has to do in a multiple choice question is recognise the correct answer, whereas in an open ended question he or she has to generate the answer spontaneously. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that the question’s format is of limited importance and that it is the content of the question that determines almost totally what the question tests. Reliability This does not imply that question formats are always x A score that a student obtains on a test should indicate the score interchangeable—some knowledge cannot be tested with that this student would obtain in any other given (equally difficult) multiple choice questions, and some knowledge is best not test in the same field (“parallel test”) tested with open ended questions. So if a student passes a particular test one has to be sure disadvantages of question types: reliability, validity, educational that he or she would not have failed a parallel test, and vice versa impact, cost effectiveness, and acceptability. Reliability pertains x Two factors influence reliability negatively: to the accuracy with which a score on a test is determined. Sample error—The number of items may be too small to provide a Validity refers to whether the question actually tests what it is reproducible result Sample too narrow—If the questions focus only on a certain purported to test. Therefore they will prepare strategically depending on the question types used. Whether different preparation leads to different types of knowledge is not fully clear, however. When teachers are forced to use a particular question type, they will tend to ask about the themes that can be easily assessed with Validity that question type, and they will neglect the topics for which the x The validity of a test is the extent to which it measures what it question type is less well suited. Therefore, it is wise to vary the purports to measure x Most competencies cannot be observed directly (body length, for question types in different examinations. Therefore, in examinations it is important to costs of different examinations have to be taken into account, collect evidence to ensure validity: and even the best designed examination will not survive if it is One simple piece of evidence could be, for example, that experts not accepted by teachers and students.

By X. Karmok. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Tubby collaborated with Robert into its own storehouse cheap fosamax 35 mg without a prescription, whereas the Association Jones in publishing a book on Modern Methods unwillingly scattered its harvest for many years in the Surgery of Paralysis fosamax 70 mg for sale. The many indications for tendon Important Publications transplantation and its technique were described. Their treatment of spastic paralysis was an inno- In 1896, Tubby published a book entitled Defor- vation; little had been attempted for this type of mities: a Treatise on Orthopedic Surgery. It was based mainly on the experience the in abduction, to be followed by re-education author had gained at the National Orthopedic walking exercises. By these procedures they were Hospital and the Evelina Hospital for Sick Chil- able to get these patients walking and capable of dren. For the spastic pronated hand, the the lavish number of illustrations produced, 200 pronator radii teres was converted into a supina- were original. But he cast his net widely in order tor by detaching its insertion, with periosteum, to gather the thinking and practice of surgeons in passing it through the interosseous membrane, America and on the Continent. The work was an behind the radius and reattaching it to the outer authoritative presentation of orthopedic surgery side of the bone. Flexor carpi ulnaris was trans- as understood in the closing years of the nine- planted into extensor carpi ulnaris and flexor carpi teenth century; it revealed how great had been its radialis into the radial extensors. Little in 1839 published his sometimes combined with tendon transplantation classic A Treatise on Club-Foot and the Nature of in patients with infantile paralysis; more often Analogous Distortions. They had per- branch of surgery had still to reach maturity; a formed over 100 such operations. The publication passage in the preface of his book makes strange of this work in 1903 was a distinct landmark in reading: “The practice of Orthopedic Surgery in the progress of orthopedic surgery. England does not include all phases of diseases of In 1912, Tubby published a new edition of bones and joints such as tuberculous ostitis and his textbook with the ominous title Deformities arthritis of the hip and knee, on what grounds it Including Diseases of the Bones and Joints. He had been formed by Nicoladani in 1882, when he attached obliged to rewrite the whole work and to arrange the peronei to the tendo achillis in a patient with the various subjects according to their etiology talipes calcaneus. In 1892, Parish and Drobnik and pathology rather than on a regional classifi- independently applied the same method to other cation as in the previous edition. In 1894, Winkelman ana- accumulated material that the author had to issue lyzed a series of cases in which he had performed the work in two large volumes, which contained the operation. This was followed by a series pub- 70 plates and more than 1,000 illustrations, of lished by Goldthwait; and Townsend wrote on which 400 were original. The last paper, tested at the exclusion of diseases of bones and read before the British Orthopedic Society in joints, apart from the spine, from the province of 339 Who’s Who in Orthopedics orthopedic surgery.

Not only can patients tell their stories and relating to the patient buy fosamax 35mg overnight delivery, verbal or written show physical signs buy fosamax 70 mg low cost, but they can also give deeper and broader x Brief the patient before the session—purpose of the teaching insights into their problems. Finally, they can give feedback to session, level of students’ experience, how the patient is expected to both learners and teacher. Through their interactions with participate patients, clinical teachers—knowingly or unknowingly—have a x If appropriate, involve the patient in the teaching as much as powerful influence on learners as role models. Choosing the most appropriate type of written examination for a certain purpose Probably the most important misconception is the belief that is often difficult. This article discusses the format of the question determines what the question some general issues of written assessment actually tests. Multiple choice questions, for example, are often thengivesanoverviewofthemost believed to be unsuitable for testing the ability to solve medical commonly used types, together with their problems. The reasoning behind this assumption is that all a major advantages and disadvantages student has to do in a multiple choice question is recognise the correct answer, whereas in an open ended question he or she has to generate the answer spontaneously. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that the question’s format is of limited importance and that it is the content of the question that determines almost totally what the question tests. Reliability This does not imply that question formats are always x A score that a student obtains on a test should indicate the score interchangeable—some knowledge cannot be tested with that this student would obtain in any other given (equally difficult) multiple choice questions, and some knowledge is best not test in the same field (“parallel test”) tested with open ended questions. So if a student passes a particular test one has to be sure disadvantages of question types: reliability, validity, educational that he or she would not have failed a parallel test, and vice versa impact, cost effectiveness, and acceptability. Reliability pertains x Two factors influence reliability negatively: to the accuracy with which a score on a test is determined. Sample error—The number of items may be too small to provide a Validity refers to whether the question actually tests what it is reproducible result Sample too narrow—If the questions focus only on a certain purported to test. Therefore they will prepare strategically depending on the question types used. Whether different preparation leads to different types of knowledge is not fully clear, however. When teachers are forced to use a particular question type, they will tend to ask about the themes that can be easily assessed with Validity that question type, and they will neglect the topics for which the x The validity of a test is the extent to which it measures what it question type is less well suited. Therefore, it is wise to vary the purports to measure x Most competencies cannot be observed directly (body length, for question types in different examinations. Therefore, in examinations it is important to costs of different examinations have to be taken into account, collect evidence to ensure validity: and even the best designed examination will not survive if it is One simple piece of evidence could be, for example, that experts not accepted by teachers and students.