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By A. Hauke. Briar Cliff University. 2017.

Work cycle of sliding filaments (isotonic contraction) DHPR with (heart) and with- out (muscle) Ca2+channel Action potential RYR T system Myosin Longitudinal ATP Ca2+ tubule Tropomyosin Actin Troponin Resting position ATP- Pi [Ca2+]i ase [Ca2+]i ADP 1µmol/l = 1–10µmol/l 45° 90° Ca2+ ATP 1 Actin-myosin binding buy alli 60mg visa, ATP cleavage 50° 90° 4 Loosening of actin–myosin bond (“softening” effect of ATP) generic 60mg alli with mastercard, myosin heads erect 2a Myosin heads tilt ATP due to Pi release 45° 50° 3 ATP binding With ATP Without ATP Stable “rigor complex” 65 persists 2b Final head position (rigor mortis) after ADP release Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. The magnitude of contraction of tonus fibers is Muscle 2+ regulated by variation of the cytosolic Ca con- Action potentials generated in muscle fibers centration (not by action potentials! The contraction force is achieved by variable re- individual contractions cannot be detected be- cruitment of motor units (! When apparently at single stimulus always leads to maximum Ca2+ rest, muscles such as the postural muscles are release and, thus, to a maximum single twitch in this involuntary state of tension. Resting of skeletal muscle fiber if above threshold (all- muscle tone is regulated by reflexes or-none response). There are keep the sliding filaments in motion long different types of muscle contractions. This occurs, for example, at 20Hz tions,musclelengthandforcebothvarysimul- in slow-twitch muscles and at 60–100 Hz in taneously. The muscle tionthatbuildsonanisometriconeiscalledan force during tetanus can be as much as four afterloaded contraction. A resting muscle con- Ca2+ concentration, which decreases to some taining ATP can be stretched like a rubber extent between superpositioned stimuli, re- band. Contracture is not caused by ac- stretch, which keeps the sliding filaments in tion potentials, but by persistent local depolari- the sarcomeres from separating, is influenced zation due, for example, to increased extra- to a small extent by the fascia (fibrous tissue). Muscle strength at increasing and decreasing stimulus frequencies Stimulus Range of summation Single contractions Tetanus 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) B. Types of contractions Isometric Isotonic Resting tension curve 0 0 Length Isotonic, then Auxotonic After- isometric loaded Rest Isometric Rest Isotonic contraction contraction C. Isometric muscle force relative to sarcomere length 100 80 Skeletal muscle 60 Cardiac 40 muscle 20 0 1. Ibandregionareflexibleandfunctionas“elas- force of cardiac muscle at rest is greater than ticbands”thatcounteractpassivestretchingof that of skeletal muscle (! Skeletal muscle normally functions in the plateau region of its length–force curve, The extensibility of titin molecules, which can stretchtouptoaroundtentimestheirnormallength whereascardiacmuscletendstooperateinthe in skeletal muscle and somewhat less in cardiac ascendinglimb(belowLmax)ofitslength–force muscle, is mainly due to frequent repetition of the curve without a plateau (! In very the ventricle responds to increased diastolic strong muscle extension, which represents the filling loads by increasing its force develop- steepestpartoftherestingextensibilitycurve(! Action potentials in cardiac muscle are of The length (L) and force (F) or “tension” of a much longer duration than those in skeletal muscle are closely related (!

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It was introduced to the public on De- wide variety of materials in outdoor as well as indoor cember 30 order 60 mg alli with visa, 1991 discount 60mg alli amex, and was used twice a month until 1995, settings. Most modern labyrinths range between 40 and 80 feet in diam- Benefits eter, although larger ones have also been made. In general, labyrinth walking is said to benefit par- One classification scheme categorizes labyrinths as ticipants by allowing a temporary suspension of so- either left- or right-handed, according to the direction of called left-brain activity—logical thought, analysis, and the first turn to be made after entering the labyrinth. The fact-based planning— and encourage the emergence of entrance to the labyrinth is known as the mouth, and the the intuition and imaginative creativity associated with walkway itself is called the path. Lauren Artress has said, “The labyrinth defined as having a simple path with an equal number of does not engage our thinking minds. Labyrinths are also classified by itive, pattern-seeking, symbolic mind to come forth. It the number of circuits in their design, a circuit being one presents us with only one, but profound, choice. To enter of the circles or rings surrounding the center of the a labyrinth is to choose to walk a spiritual path. The labyrinth in Chartres Cathedral, for exam- In addition to helping people open themselves to the ple, is a classical eleven-circuit labyrinth. Three- and nonrational parts of the psyche, labyrinth walking puts seven-circuit classical labyrinths have been constructed 1174 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 in many parts of the United States, while one labyrinth in Precautions Denmark has 15 circuits. There are no special precautions needed for labyrinth walking other than allowing sufficient time for the experi- Walking the labyrinth ence. Most people find that the walk takes about 45 min- The actual procedure of labyrinth walking is divided utes or an hour, but some take two to three hours to com- into three phases or stages: the journey inward, a pause plete their journey. It is best to plan a labyrinth walk for a for prayer or meditation at the center, and the return jour- day or evening without a tight time schedule. There are no rules or guidelines for the pace or speed of labyrinth walking, although participants are asked to Side effects be respectful of others who may prefer a slower pace, and to move around them as gently as possible. Some people No physical or psychological side effects have been choose to dance, run, crawl on their hands and knees, or reported from labyrinth walking as of 2004.

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They its toxins 60mg alli fast delivery, and that they can experience serious symp- keep the flora of the intestines and vagina balanced cheap 60mg alli fast delivery, and toms when the organism multiplies in the body to an ab- compete with some pathogenic organisms. Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, muscle biotic population of the body is severely decreased, as pain, thrush, itching, mood changes, endocrine dysfunc- can occur with treatment by many antibiotics, yeasts and tion, headaches, and tingling or numbness of the extrem- harmful bacteria may take over and cause illness. Normal ities are some of the symptoms that are reportedly asso- and healthy amounts of acidophilus can also be decreased ciated with systemic candidiasis. The in- such nutritional supplements as essential fatty acids,is creased acidity may promote the absorption of calcium, often recommended for the prevention and treatment of as well as of some other minerals. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 3 Gastrointestinal disorders KEY TERMS Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional dis-. One small study of the use of aci- Probiotic—Any strain of bacteria that lives in the dophilus to treat IBS showed more improvement in the human gut and is considered a “friendly” bacteri- treated group than in those who took a placebo. Probiotics secrete enzymes that help to keep not conclusive evidence, but in view of the safety of the the digestive system balanced, and compete with treatment and the scarcity of effective alternatives, aci- some pathogenic organisms. The potency of a given preparation is usually expressed as Recent evidence suggests that consuming Lacto- the number of organisms per capsule. A usual dose of bacillus acidophilus L1 can be effective in lowering acidophilus is 1–10 billion organisms, divided into three blood cholesterol. Journal of the American College of Nutrition reports on two studies done at the University of Kentucky. Side effects Immune response The initial use of acidophilus may cause an increase A study published in the December 1998 issue of in intestinal gas, which decreases with continued use of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Re- the product. Acidophilus is sometimes recommended as an immune booster for Interactions people, although the effect has not yet been document- Taking acidophilus in conjunction with some antibi- ed in humans. Acidophilus may possibly be helpful in the treat- ment of canker sores, fever blisters, hives, and adoles- Resources cent acne. California: Therapeutic Research Faculty, powder, liquid, tablets, or capsules, and is also present 1999. Probiotic Judith Turner 4 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 Acne Definition Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease char- acterized by pimples on the face, chest, and back. It oc- curs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and/or bacteria. Description Acne vulgaris, the medical term for common acne, is the most common skin disease. While acne can arise at any age, it usually begins at puberty and worsens dur- ing adolescence.

By A. Hauke. Briar Cliff University. 2017.

Work cycle of sliding filaments (isotonic contraction) DHPR with (heart) and with- out (muscle) Ca2+channel Action potential RYR T system Myosin Longitudinal ATP Ca2+ tubule Tropomyosin Actin Troponin Resting position ATP- Pi [Ca2+]i ase [Ca2+]i ADP 1µmol/l = 1–10µmol/l 45° 90° Ca2+ ATP 1 Actin-myosin binding buy alli 60mg visa, ATP cleavage 50° 90° 4 Loosening of actin–myosin bond (“softening” effect of ATP) generic 60mg alli with mastercard, myosin heads erect 2a Myosin heads tilt ATP due to Pi release 45° 50° 3 ATP binding With ATP Without ATP Stable “rigor complex” 65 persists 2b Final head position (rigor mortis) after ADP release Despopoulos, Color Atlas of Physiology © 2003 Thieme All rights reserved. The magnitude of contraction of tonus fibers is Muscle 2+ regulated by variation of the cytosolic Ca con- Action potentials generated in muscle fibers centration (not by action potentials! The contraction force is achieved by variable re- individual contractions cannot be detected be- cruitment of motor units (! When apparently at single stimulus always leads to maximum Ca2+ rest, muscles such as the postural muscles are release and, thus, to a maximum single twitch in this involuntary state of tension. Resting of skeletal muscle fiber if above threshold (all- muscle tone is regulated by reflexes or-none response). There are keep the sliding filaments in motion long different types of muscle contractions. This occurs, for example, at 20Hz tions,musclelengthandforcebothvarysimul- in slow-twitch muscles and at 60–100 Hz in taneously. The muscle tionthatbuildsonanisometriconeiscalledan force during tetanus can be as much as four afterloaded contraction. A resting muscle con- Ca2+ concentration, which decreases to some taining ATP can be stretched like a rubber extent between superpositioned stimuli, re- band. Contracture is not caused by ac- stretch, which keeps the sliding filaments in tion potentials, but by persistent local depolari- the sarcomeres from separating, is influenced zation due, for example, to increased extra- to a small extent by the fascia (fibrous tissue). Muscle strength at increasing and decreasing stimulus frequencies Stimulus Range of summation Single contractions Tetanus 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) B. Types of contractions Isometric Isotonic Resting tension curve 0 0 Length Isotonic, then Auxotonic After- isometric loaded Rest Isometric Rest Isotonic contraction contraction C. Isometric muscle force relative to sarcomere length 100 80 Skeletal muscle 60 Cardiac 40 muscle 20 0 1. Ibandregionareflexibleandfunctionas“elas- force of cardiac muscle at rest is greater than ticbands”thatcounteractpassivestretchingof that of skeletal muscle (! Skeletal muscle normally functions in the plateau region of its length–force curve, The extensibility of titin molecules, which can stretchtouptoaroundtentimestheirnormallength whereascardiacmuscletendstooperateinthe in skeletal muscle and somewhat less in cardiac ascendinglimb(belowLmax)ofitslength–force muscle, is mainly due to frequent repetition of the curve without a plateau (! In very the ventricle responds to increased diastolic strong muscle extension, which represents the filling loads by increasing its force develop- steepestpartoftherestingextensibilitycurve(! Action potentials in cardiac muscle are of The length (L) and force (F) or “tension” of a much longer duration than those in skeletal muscle are closely related (!

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It was introduced to the public on De- wide variety of materials in outdoor as well as indoor cember 30 order 60 mg alli with visa, 1991 discount 60mg alli amex, and was used twice a month until 1995, settings. Most modern labyrinths range between 40 and 80 feet in diam- Benefits eter, although larger ones have also been made. In general, labyrinth walking is said to benefit par- One classification scheme categorizes labyrinths as ticipants by allowing a temporary suspension of so- either left- or right-handed, according to the direction of called left-brain activity—logical thought, analysis, and the first turn to be made after entering the labyrinth. The fact-based planning— and encourage the emergence of entrance to the labyrinth is known as the mouth, and the the intuition and imaginative creativity associated with walkway itself is called the path. Lauren Artress has said, “The labyrinth defined as having a simple path with an equal number of does not engage our thinking minds. Labyrinths are also classified by itive, pattern-seeking, symbolic mind to come forth. It the number of circuits in their design, a circuit being one presents us with only one, but profound, choice. To enter of the circles or rings surrounding the center of the a labyrinth is to choose to walk a spiritual path. The labyrinth in Chartres Cathedral, for exam- In addition to helping people open themselves to the ple, is a classical eleven-circuit labyrinth. Three- and nonrational parts of the psyche, labyrinth walking puts seven-circuit classical labyrinths have been constructed 1174 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 in many parts of the United States, while one labyrinth in Precautions Denmark has 15 circuits. There are no special precautions needed for labyrinth walking other than allowing sufficient time for the experi- Walking the labyrinth ence. Most people find that the walk takes about 45 min- The actual procedure of labyrinth walking is divided utes or an hour, but some take two to three hours to com- into three phases or stages: the journey inward, a pause plete their journey. It is best to plan a labyrinth walk for a for prayer or meditation at the center, and the return jour- day or evening without a tight time schedule. There are no rules or guidelines for the pace or speed of labyrinth walking, although participants are asked to Side effects be respectful of others who may prefer a slower pace, and to move around them as gently as possible. Some people No physical or psychological side effects have been choose to dance, run, crawl on their hands and knees, or reported from labyrinth walking as of 2004.

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They its toxins 60mg alli fast delivery, and that they can experience serious symp- keep the flora of the intestines and vagina balanced cheap 60mg alli fast delivery, and toms when the organism multiplies in the body to an ab- compete with some pathogenic organisms. Fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, muscle biotic population of the body is severely decreased, as pain, thrush, itching, mood changes, endocrine dysfunc- can occur with treatment by many antibiotics, yeasts and tion, headaches, and tingling or numbness of the extrem- harmful bacteria may take over and cause illness. Normal ities are some of the symptoms that are reportedly asso- and healthy amounts of acidophilus can also be decreased ciated with systemic candidiasis. The in- such nutritional supplements as essential fatty acids,is creased acidity may promote the absorption of calcium, often recommended for the prevention and treatment of as well as of some other minerals. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 3 Gastrointestinal disorders KEY TERMS Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional dis-. One small study of the use of aci- Probiotic—Any strain of bacteria that lives in the dophilus to treat IBS showed more improvement in the human gut and is considered a “friendly” bacteri- treated group than in those who took a placebo. Probiotics secrete enzymes that help to keep not conclusive evidence, but in view of the safety of the the digestive system balanced, and compete with treatment and the scarcity of effective alternatives, aci- some pathogenic organisms. The potency of a given preparation is usually expressed as Recent evidence suggests that consuming Lacto- the number of organisms per capsule. A usual dose of bacillus acidophilus L1 can be effective in lowering acidophilus is 1–10 billion organisms, divided into three blood cholesterol. Journal of the American College of Nutrition reports on two studies done at the University of Kentucky. Side effects Immune response The initial use of acidophilus may cause an increase A study published in the December 1998 issue of in intestinal gas, which decreases with continued use of the Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Re- the product. Acidophilus is sometimes recommended as an immune booster for Interactions people, although the effect has not yet been document- Taking acidophilus in conjunction with some antibi- ed in humans. Acidophilus may possibly be helpful in the treat- ment of canker sores, fever blisters, hives, and adoles- Resources cent acne. California: Therapeutic Research Faculty, powder, liquid, tablets, or capsules, and is also present 1999. Probiotic Judith Turner 4 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 Acne Definition Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease char- acterized by pimples on the face, chest, and back. It oc- curs when the pores of the skin become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and/or bacteria. Description Acne vulgaris, the medical term for common acne, is the most common skin disease. While acne can arise at any age, it usually begins at puberty and worsens dur- ing adolescence.